Women 1st part

C O N T E N T S

 

 

  1. A scientific study of creation male-female 13

 

  1. Psychology of Gender ………………………16

 

  1. Women in Buddhism …………………………23

 

  1. Women in Jainism …………………………32

 

  1. Women in Zoroastrianism …………………33

 

  1. Women in Sikhism …………………………35

 

  1. Women in Christianity ………………………41

 

  1. Women in Islam …………………………49

 

  1. Women in Hinduism …………………………74

 

  1. Women in Tribal society ……………………23

 

  1. Mostly partners kill Indian women

 

  1. Savitribai Jyotirao Phule

 

  1. Hindu code bill …………………………

 

  1. A fluid state …………………………………

 

  1. Eve’s first son Cain Cursed

 

  1. EINSTEIN’S IDEA OF RELIGION

 

 

BIBLEOGRAPHY

 

 

 

 

 

 

F O R E W O R D

 

From the very beginning of human civilization women have always been underprivileged. They had enjoyed equal freedom with men till the time people lived by ‘chase’ or even in their food gathering stage. At that time they were not settled in any particular place and while chasing the animals for food men and women played equal role in all their activities. Mankind was living in smaller groups and on group consisted of more than five hundred or six hundred people. Another important point at that stage was that people did not know that a child was born out of sexual intercourse between man and woman. That sense came to them only after they learnt to domesticate animals.

A big change came in the tribal thinking when they learnt ‘that union between men and women produced children’. Before that, all the children belonged to the tribe and each child had a mother but no father. But after acquiring this new knowledge they started searching for the father of the new born child and the responsibility of rearing up the child was shared between the father and the mother. Although,  it gave some relief to the mother but at the same time it snatched away some of her freedom. She becomes the exclusive property of a man. This way, the family system came into existence and when the tribes took to agriculture and settled-life, it was the women’s fate to become confined to home as they had to attend to the children more than the father. These way women got the protection of men but at the same time they lost their economic freedom as the economic activities become the exclusive preserve of men. After losing the economic freedom they virtually became slaves to men. This was the picture of every society from ancient time up to the recent past. A reflection of this can be seen in Manu’s dictum, “In childhood a female must be subject to her father, in youth to their husband, when her lord is dead to her sons; a women must never be independent.” Similar dictums can be traced in most of the other religions also and religion being the source of law in all the countries, people observes these laws as their sacred duty. This idea has been elaborated by Mr Ghatak in his book.

 

The problem of women’s slavery has attracted the notice of many modern social thinkers and statesmen. Many secular laws have been enacted in most of the countries of the world. But as the implementation of these laws lies in the hands of men, the plight of women has not changed much from its earlier status. Under Article 17 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, a committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women was established to consider periodic reports from state parties (153 States),  regarding their compliance with the provisions of the convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. This Convention was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 18th, 1979, and came into force on September 2nd, 1981. But not much effect of it has been felt as yet, especially in the developing countries of the world. The reason is very simple. Unless women strongly believe that they are equal to men and in no way inferior to them, their emancipation is not possible.

Shri Ghatak in his book ‘A Macro study of Women in India-over the ages; in and out of scriptures’ has carefully  analysed the status  of women  in ancient and modern society, by referring  to different religious scriptures and has found that they have been oppressed through ages by the members of their own societies. His scientific analysis shows that women in no way are inferior to men. The book will provide a great moral boost to those who are fighting for women’s liberation.

In this book he has provided factual citations from different authentic sources. His intention is not to hurt anybody’s sentiments. His main motive is to bring in light the past to improve the future of mankind.

S.R.TALUKDER

Sr.DGM(BHEL)Rtd.

 

 

 

 

 

P                R             E              F              A             C             E

 

Without granting equal rights to women in all spheres of life irrespective of religious, social and economic conditions, we cannot expect to change their status in the society. Education is a must for all; this was provided by the Constitution of India in 1950. Article 45 says “Provision for free and compulsory education for children-the State shall endeavour to provide, within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. “But even after 65 years of Independence we still see the lack of improvement in this sphere. Even the moderately broad-minded and educated people in this country fail to grow out of the bias against the fair sex.

The book contains facts like how an embryo is formed inside the uterus and is the deciding factor of a male or a female child. Who is responsible for a male embryo and a female embryo? Man or Woman? A study has been made on the factors affecting a child’s behavious and the psychological difference between a male and a female child on the basis of the research done by different psychologists and their experimental results.

The so called religious injunctions have played an enormous role in gender discrimination. Proof of this is found in our own religious books.

Till now the efforts made towards women’s emancipation have been limited only to the enlightened sections of the society. The age old stagnant social order must be liquidated.  Women, from all sections of society, must fight their own battle with courage and conviction.

Article 14 of the Indian Constitution guarantees equal rights to all citizens and equality before law and Article 15 says “No discrimination can be made on grounds of sex, religion, race caste, and creed”. In the light of these provisions the Government of India has been trying to help women to find employment and thus, to become economically independent. They are in government service and occupy posts in the judiciary, army, police and other departments. And yet, women are made to feel inferior to men especially at the time of marriage. Demands for dowry and the harassment of women in numerous other ways are not unusual.

Social organizations should involve women at large as active participants in their effort to earn a life of freedom and respect for the fair sex. Nobody can help them until and unless they themselves come forward to modify the social and religious injunctions against them.

Among many who have helped in large and small ways to produce this book, I am also grateful to my close relatives, neighbours, friends and also to my own village and other places where I stayed like Banglore, Madras, Bombay, Asansol, Maithon, Guwahati, Shillong from where I got inspiration to write this book after observing the inexplicable suffering of women due to the social and religious stigmas.

I am grateful in a special measure to …………………………………..

I acknowledge gratefully my debt to all those who have co-operated to bring out this work.

 

B.K.GHATAK

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A scientific study of creation of male & female

The series of changes which constitute the development of the human body commence when the female germ cell, or ovum, is fertilized by a male germ cell, or spermatozoon, and terminate when the adult condition is reached. Embryology deals with the changes which occur prior to the birth of the child.

The sex of the organism is primarily directed by genetic factors which may mediate their effects through the endocrine controls, notably the cortex of the suprarenal gland. The differentiation of the gonad may be modified by several factors including the chromosomal constitution.

The nuclei of humans contains a diploid number of chromosomes, 22 pairs of autosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosomes, making a total of 46. During maturation, a reduction-division results in each ovum or spermatozoon containing only the haploid number of 22 unpaired autosomes and one sex chromosome.

The sex chromosomes women are homologous because of the presence of two X chromosomes (XX pattern), whereas in the men they are of the heterologous type, consisting of one X and one Y chromosomes (XY pattern).

During meiosis or reduction-division of the primary spermatocyte or oocyte, half the number of chromosomes passes to the daughter cell. As a result, each daughter cell contains 22 autosomes and one sex chromosome. Hence, each daughter cell (gamet) will possess either X or Y sex chromosomes.

In the process of fertilization between sperm (22 autosomes and either X or Y sex chromosomes) and ovum (22 autosomes and X sex chromosomes), the resulting zygote would contain 23 pairs of chromosomes of which 22 pairs are autosomes. The remaining 23rd pair determines the sex of the off-spring. If the sperm containing   X sex chromosomes unites with the ovum (X), the two sex chromosomes would be identical, (X and X) producing a female off-spring. But if the Y sex chromosome of the male unites with the ovum (X), the two sex chromosomes will be different, (X and Y) resulting a male off-spring.

Thus the original diploid number of chromosomes is restored, 22 pairs of autosomes plus the paired sex chromosome, making 46 in all.   The chromosomal sex of an embryo is, therefore, determined at the first stage of its creation and every cell in the body is, thereafter, labelled by a chromosomal pattern, either a male or a female.

Therefore, this medical explanation is strong enough in favour of the fair sex, that they have no role in the creation of the male or the female sex, except that they carry the embryo irrespective of its sex identity. It is the mighty man who is mainly responsible for the birth of a male or a female child. But unfortunately, the society irrespective of colour, creed or religion, is biased towards the male sex, in a sense that, it expects them to dominate the society. Even the males themselves believe that the females are responsible for giving birth to a girl child and sometimes treat them very badly for this.

In some cases a male gets married twice or thrice to produce a male child, but he does not realize that it is he and not his wife who is the deciding factor of the child’s sex. In our society when and individual is able to have a male child from a second marriage the first wife becomes the victim. Though, she is innocent in this matter as she has no role in determining the sex of the child.

It should also be mentioned here that in most cases the women themselves are responsible for the sufferings of other women. For example a mother-in-law would never find fault with her son, she will maltreat her daughter-in-law in case she gives birth to a female child, which is unwanted in most of the families even today. Such individuals forget the fact that their own daughters can meet the same fate.

In a society that is obsessed with sexual fitness and in which male machismo is equated with sexual performance, it is not surprising that an inability to perform sexually induces feelings of shame, guilt, frustration and despair. Labelled as impotent, such men are looked down upon weak, powerless and lesser human beings. The stigma attached to it further ensures that such problems are steeped in myths and misconceptions leading to harassment for his counterpart and it is the woman who always suffers. A man may be incapable of fathering a child for many reasons. It may be due to the inability to achieve and maintain an adequate erection of the male organ to allow a satisfactory sexual intercourse due to various physical and psychological weaknesses. Previously, everyone thought that these problems are not psychological. The prevalence of this myth continues to make it difficult for the men to admit their problem and seek medical help, instead they mentally torture and even physical assaults also not ruled out to punish their wives for their own weakness.

It is high time that sexual difficulties are dealt with in an open, honest, scientific manner, rather than allowing sufferers to live in the shame or be exploited by ruthless quacks only to be left high and dry worse off than before. A pragmatic approach will definitely help to understand and improve the relationship between man and woman.

When I was visited Khajuraho with my wife in 1989 and surprised to see all those erotic arts on the wall of the temples and being a puzzle man when we went to  the Shiva temple and I asked the priests there that how big this Shiva lingam is? He informed us that this is the biggest ever Shiva lingam made so far and in a casual question I asked the man as it is a very big one and then how big should be the female organ he exclaimed and told me it is in the down and shown me that and explained that this is the union of Shiva and Parvati which is worshiped by Hindus.

So much open society we belongs as each couple know that they worship the most prestigious organ of the body but on the other hand they always want to shift the blame to cover up their own faults.

The world seemed to have come crashing down for man when his wife told him about her pregnancy two years ago. Maharaj, who had been termed infertile after a semen test, suspected his wife’s fidelity. Finally, a DNA test had to be done on the baby to convince Maharaj that the child was indeed his own.

Like Maharaj, thousands of Indian males have been incorrectly diagnosed as ‘unable to reproduce’ because of incorrect diagnosis of their sperm count and quality. Experts say misdiagnosis is one of the reasons why increasing number of couples are opting for in-vitro fertilization procedures instead of trying for natural conception.

For instance, the WHO says a man with a semen count of 15 million and more can reproduce. In India, however, some diagnostic labs still consider 20 million as the lower cut-off for infertility.

To tackle this problem, the WHO has begun conducting workshops in different Indian cities, where embryologists are given short-term training on the latest guidelines about minimum sperm count required for reproduction and the scales of measurement for the quality of male reproductive cells.

“WHO’s latest guideline on semen analysis is more evidence-based and reflects the fertility potential of males more accurately. These clearly show that minimum sperm concentration required for reproduction is 15 million sperm per ml,” said WHO expert Daniel Franken in Delhi on Tuesday.

Similarly, Dr Franken said, the new guidelines have defined the quality of sperm in more absolute terms. “But lab reports continue to follow impression-based analysis which is subjective and not accurate,” he added.

The WHO expert said semen analysis is the basis of evaluation and management of the infertile couple and is often the only investigation done for the male partner. It often determines the course and nature of treatment.

According to Gaurav Mazumdar chief embryologist at Sir Ganga Ram hospital, 20%-30% of patients coming to the centre with a negative semen analysis report end up conceiving naturally.

“Many patients come heartbroken thinking they can never have their own child or seek IVF. But when further analysis is conducted, the sperm count and other parameters are found to good enough for reproduction,” he said.

Dr Suneeta Mittal, former lead of AIIMS IVF centre, said that sperm counts are generally lower among men these days due to stress, exposure to environmental pollutants, alcohol abuse and other lifestyle problems. But that doesn’t mean everyone requires an IVF procedure to get a child, she added.

Research shows there has been a fall in the average sperm count of the Indian male, from 60 million per ml to 20 million, over the last three decades. Also, the number of normal cells in a person has reduced by more than one-third.

PSYCHOLOGY OF GENDER

Catharine Cox Miles remarks in her book “Handbook of Social Psychology’ that, social tradition encourages man to achievement. It now permits woman to achieve in the same domains far more than ever before in history. But given the present economic pressures and humanity’s deep prejudices, progress can hardly go rapidly in the direction of a wisely ordered exploitation of women’s strong mental powers.

All most all studies show that at birth, a boy’s brain is bigger than a girl’s brain. At birth, a boy’s average brain is between 12-20% larger than that of a girl’s. However, when the size of the brain is compared to the body weight at this age, there is no difference between boys and girls. So, a girl baby and a boy baby who weigh the same will have similar brain sizes. Using new MRI methods, researchers have found no differences in the size of the corpus callosum in males and females.’

E.L.Thorndike in his book “Educational Psychology’’ wrote that the trivial difference between the central tendency of men and that of women, which is the common finding of psychological tests and school experiences, may seem at variance with the patent fact that in the great achievements of the world in science, art, invention, and management, women have been far excelled by men. One who accepts the equality of typical (i.e. model) representatives of the two sexes must assume the burden of explaining the reason for this great difference in the high ranges of achievement. It is at once evident how important the stated implications are for those who hope to remove all the disabilities of law, custom and all the prejudices against women. If the explanation for the failure of the fair sex to show significant achievements in these fields is really to be found in the inherently greater variability of males then complete liberation of women from excessive maternity and from all the consequent customs and legal disabilities that have developed will result merely in raising the average intelligence and happiness of the race. We cannot expect any substantial increase from this source in the number of eminent individuals, nor in the achievement of that high order which forces knowledge and wisdom further.

The probably true explanation is to be sought in the treated variability with the male sex. In particular, if men differ in intelligence and energy by wider extremes than women, eminence in and leadership of the world’s affairs will inevitably belong oftener to men. They will offender deserve it.

Carol Nagy Jacklin in his book ‘The Psychology of Gender’’ mentioned that when Samuel Johnson was asked who is more intelligent, man or woman, he is said to have inquired, ‘’Which man, which woman?” This is succinct way of expressing the wide individual differences found within each sex, with the resulting overlapping of their distributions. Since in any psychological trait women differ widely from one another and men likewise very widely among themselves any relationship found between group means will not necessarily hold for individuals. Even when one group excels the other by a large and statistically significant amount, some individuals can be found in the lower scoring group who surpass certain individuals in the higher scoring group.  Because of the large extent of individual differences within any one group as contrasted to the relatively small difference between group means a person’s membership in a given group provides little or no information about his or her status in most traits.

Another possible implication of developmental acceleration is a social one. Because of their physical acceleration, adolescent girls have, traditionally, tended to associate with boys older than themselves. This probably accounts also for the common age discrepancy in marriage. Since the girl was generally younger than the boys she dated and also younger than the man, she married, she was surpassed by most of her male associate in the amount of education and general experience. The resulting differences in knowledge and information may have been perceived and fostered as a sex difference and could thus be at the root of many social attitudes and sex stereotypes. With the sharp increase in coeducation, over the decades, the resulting daily contact with age peers of the opposite sex may serve as a corrective for this traditional misperception and may eventually be reflected in an equalization of expectations attitudes and self-concepts.

Another conspicuous set of biological sex differences pertains to general body size, muscular strength and speed and coordination of gross bodily movements in all of which males excel. Of course in this case as in all other traits, we must not lose sight of the overlapping of distributions. But the main sex differences in these physical characteristics are certainly large and consistent. Sex differences in gross motor coordination for example, have been noted from infancy and tend to increase throughout childhood.

Another type of relationship that may be reflected in sex differences is that between motivational, emotional, and attitudinal variables on the one hand and aptitudes and achievements on the other. As the former alter under the impact of societal changes, they may lead eventually to corresponding modifications in the latter. That not only immediate achievement but also the long term development of aptitudes is influenced by the individual’s motivation and related no cognitive variables has been repeatedly demonstrated most notably in the research done by Atkinson and his associate. According to their schema, motivation affects the efficiency with which a task is performed as well as the time the individual devotes to the task.

In another study (Fitzpatrick, 1978), the achievements of some bright 10th grade girls in mathematics as assessed by both grades and standardized tests was found to be significantly related to the students’ attitudes toward various aspects of the female role. Those girls showing a liberal orientation on the women’s role scale performed better in mathematics than those with a more traditional orientation. It would thus also seem desirable to investigate aptitude changes over time since these changes may be the indirect result of the socially instigated attitudinal and motivational shifts.

 

ABILITY OF A CHILD

From the Canadian Psychological Research we can observe some of the intellectual differences that one finds, on average, between men and women. Men, on the whole, do better in certain spatial tests, on perceptual disembodying tasks, and in mathematical reasoning tests than women. Women on average are better in articulatory and verbal fluency tasks, in manual dexterity, and in perceptual speed. The popular view among social scientists was that these differences were largely due to the way in which males and females were reared.

To understand the role of hormones in mediating male/female ability differences, and their probable brain mechanisms, we need to know something about their paramount importance in sexual differentiation. The sex hormones are essential not just to maintain appropriate reproductive behaviours but they are the basic determinants of almost every feature of an individual that makes him or her male or a female. While it was previously believed that the sex of an offspring is genetically determined by whether the 23rd pair of chromosomes was XX or XY, we now know that the story is not so simple. In mammals, experimental work has shown that the basic form is female and no matter what the genetic make-up, a female organism is formed unless male hormones are present in the first few weeks of foetal life. If there are no androgens or the tissue is insensitive to androgens a female is formed. (Research done by Dr.Doreen Kimura, University of Western Ontarion, Canada.)

Social classes may differ not only in the economic standing of the family but also in many demographic characteristics applicable to the mother and the family by growth. Four regression analyses were therefore performed in which each of the variables measuring the child’s psychomotor development was used as the dependent variable in turn and the following factors were used as explanatory variables; gestational age, birth weight, height and weight at the age of one sex of the child, maternal age, parity and marital status, place of residence (town, village, remote village) and social class of the family according to the father’s occupation.

The sex differences are very clear, the girls being superior in each social class. The effect of social class differences is also marked by several experiments held by Paula Rantakallio, L.Von Wendt and Helena Makinen, Depart of Public Health Science and Pediatrics, University of Oulu, Ouli, Finland.

The study of gender requires a biosocial approach that includes knowledge from various disciplines. Behaviour needs to the viewed as the end product of a complex interplay of many variables that interact with each other. Such transactional thinking may shed light on long term developmental sequences in the areas of sex-dimorphic behavior and sexuality. It may also advance our knowledge of the etiological roots of sexual orientation and preference and it may give us insight into the change of behavior over time. If this new approach is followed we may look forward to an exciting era in psycho endocrinology, developmental psychology, and the sociology of the life course.

An Italian study by Elena Belotti in her book ‘Little Girls’ yielded the following observations from primary and infant teachers in response to a question about the behavioural differences between school going boys and girls:-

Boys are livelier, noisier, more aggressive and quarrelsome; less disciplined, more disobedient, greater liars and lazier. They apply themselves less to their work; write less well and less quickly. They are more disorderly, dirtier and less intelligent. On the other hand, they are more independent, need affection approbation and help, are more self-confident, show greater solidarity with their own sex, have a great sense of friendship aren’t traitors, don’t babble and cry less. Little girls are more docile, more servile, and more dependent on the teacher’s judgment, weaker in character. They cry and gossip more are greater tattle-tales, show less solidarity with their own sex and are less gay. They are more intelligent, methodical and organized, they apply themselves better, take better care of their personal appearance, are more obedient, obliging, loyal, and careful and disciplined.

In a British study on the perceptions of behavioural differences, it was revealed that secondary teachers regarded girls as:

….more mature, more interested in the opposite sex, more conformist and obedient. Boys were seen as restless, independent, noisy and careless…Boy’s discipline problems were perceived of as the ‘boys will be boys’ variety…. Girls, however, were ‘devious’, insidious’, ‘insolent’ and ‘resentful’.

In their review of the research on sex differences, Maccoby and Jacklin were extremely cautious about coming to too many conclusions from the hundreds of studies they had assessed. Despite the strongly asserted opinions conveyed to Belotti in the above, they found that only the following sex differences were fairly well established by the data they had examined:

  • That the girls have greater verbal ability than boys. During the period from pre-school to adolescence, the sexes are similar in their verbal abilities. At the age of about 11, the sexes begin to diverge, with female superiority increasing through high school and possibly beyond.
  • That the boys excel in visual-spatial ability. Male superiority in visual-spatial tasks is fairly, consistently, found in adolescence and adulthood, but not in childhood.
  • That boy excels in mathematical ability. The two sexes are similar in their early acquisition of quantitative concepts but from 12-13 years, the mathematical skills of boys increase faster than that of the girls. The magnitude of the difference varies from one group to another.
  • Those boys are more aggressive, both physically and verbally.

Various studies and research in the psychology of gender prove that girls are psychologically strong and at times are more responsible than their counterparts. The ability of a child depends upon various other factors rather than merely on his sex. The results of certain experiments have proved that the mental faculty of a girl is sharper than that of a boy. The social restrictions imposed upon girls have gone a long way in impairing their growth and performance. In many cases they’ve become physical victims whenever they’ve tried to prove their abilities in practical life. Most unfortunately, often parents come down against the girl child to support their son’s pseudo superior mentality.

The social tradition supported by male dominated religious scriptures is the principal obstacle to natural germination of the ability of the farer sex, whether it is overall physical ability or mental strength  all are restricted by the men also supported by the women in most of the cases.

CRIME and DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN

Nine out of 10 women in the national capital feel that Delhi is unsafe or very unsafe for them. Two-thirds have experienced misbehaviour on the city’s streets. Two-thirds work in offices where there is no mechanism to deal with sexual harassment. Close to half feel they were discriminated against during the division of their moveable and immoveable parental property.

These are some of the findings of a survey commissioned by TOI on the public and private lives of Delhi’s women. The survey clearly shows that while some things may be changing at home and at the workplace, the city still poses significant challenges to a woman. The survey interviewed women across age groups and included both the main city and its satellites.

With this survey, TOI is also kicking off a campaign, ‘Delhi for Women’, which will look into different aspects of a woman’s life and engagement with the city. While safety, in the shadow of the death of Nirbhaya (Dec 16, 2013) and continuing instances of sexual assault, remains a major consideration, this campaign will not stop there. It will identify various problems that the women of Delhi face – whether during the commute, at work, home or leisure. We hope this will act as a first step towards finding solutions to these problems. Eventually, we hope Delhi will rid itself of the image of being the most unsafe city for women in India.
There is suddenly, energy around changing the status quo. The energy was most evident in the protests that followed Nirbhaya’s gang rape, but the impact thankfully lingers.

The capital may have the reputation of being India’s most unsafe city for women, but the protests against sexual assault that have rocked the country and forced the government to enact new legislation were also led by Delhi’s women. In their fight to demand what is rightfully theirs and to reclaim a city that is equally theirs, The Times of India joins hands with Delhi’s women.

TOI checked with Delhi’s women to see how well the city delivers on their aspirations. Despite the long list of platitudes & measures dished out in their name, women face daily challenges of security & discrimination on the streets, at work and at home

An overwhelming majority of the women surveyed in Delhi (96%) said they did not feel safe on the streets of Delhi or in metro stations after it got dark. But on the issue of overall safety, those within the main city (57%) rated the city as “very unsafe”, while over half the women from the Capital Region (NCR), 55%, thought it was unsafe but not “very unsafe” . This was revealed in a survey conducted by Times-TNN among women aged 18-60. Working women constituted over 40% and about 30% each were housewives and students. Over 60% of those surveyed were 18-35 years and the rest were 36-50 years old.

Among women who felt unsafe after dark, almost half felt so after as early as 8 pm. A quarter feel unsafe after 10 pm. Hardly 1% talked about staying out after midnight. The insecurity seemed to be higher in the main city rather than in the NCR region including Gurgaon, Noida, Ghaziabad and Faridabad. About 90% of the city’s women don’t even feel safe going for a morning or evening walk in their own locality, while 70% say the same in the NCR region. On the question of misbehaviour on the streets, 70% in the main city said they faced it, only half the women said the same in the NCR. While only 8% of the main city’s women reported the incident to the cops, a quarter of the women from all over the national Capital and NCR did the same.

Almost 90% never ever called the women’s helpline number. Interestingly, among those who did, almost one third stated they were “very satisfied” with the response, while 44% said they were “somewhat satisfied”. Only about a fifth expressed complete lack of satisfaction.

Among the satellite cities, women seem to consider Gurgaon the least safe. NCR’s women rate Ghaziabad the least safe followed by Gurgaon, while the main city’s women rate Noida as the least safe.

Almost half the women felt Mumbai is safer than Delhi. However, when compared to other cities like Chennai, Kolkata or Pune, only about 30% believe they were safer than Delhi. A good number believed it was the same situation in the other cities too. Within Delhi, while women from NCR thought East Delhi was the least safe, women from the main city rated West Delhi as the least safe. All concurred that Connaught Place/ Central Delhi and Dwarka were the safest.

COMMUTING-WOES

Delhi Metro and local trains come out tops as the safest modes of transport with a decisive 67% voting in their favour. Over a quarter favour their own vehicles as the safest means of commuting. Local buses got the lowest rating, just 2%. Over 70% of the surveyed complained about autos or taxis overcharging and refusing to go (80%) because of their gender. Asked what could be done to make DTC buses safe, random checks in buses, followed by women police in plainclothes in DTC buses after 8 pm found the greatest favour as effective measures. Over 70% wanted provision for seats for women to be enforced and demanded helplines to report cases of misbehaviour. Only half the women wanted male passengers in the metro to get involved in ensuring safer commuting for women. In the NCR region, only 40% women wanted this.

WORKPLACE

The workplace seems to offer Delhi’s women some degree of opportunity but most offices do not implement basic labour laws for women. Almost half the women surveyed are in the workforce. Of this half, 25% work in an office, 11% part-time, 5% are self-employed and 3% work from home. More than half the women working in offices say the prime motivation to work is money. Another quarter does it for self-esteem
and 16% say they work for financial independence and freedom.

While women may be working in larger numbers, the workplace is fraught with challenges. Over two-thirds say they work in offices that don’t have any mechanism to deal with sexual harassment complaints. This, despite the fact that 13% of working women say they experienced sexual harassment at the workplace. Unsurprisingly then, not a single woman who was harassed at the workplace says that she filed a complaint

As some women MPs pointed out during Parliament discussions on the Sexual Harassment at the Workplace Bill, at times harassment takes the form of discriminating against a woman who resists a male colleague’s or boss’ advances. Over a quarter of women say that they’ve been discriminated against at the workplace on account of being women. Apart from this, working women face serious challenges when they have children. Over half the respondents who worked in offices said their employer did not implement the government’s regulations on maternity benefits. Yet close to 70% of women said they had not taken extra maternity leave and just 3% quit their jobs after becoming mothers, pointing to the difficult juggling act that young working mothers have to play. Further, over 80% of offices did not provide crèche facilities for the respondents.

HOME

Educated and often earning well, Delhi’s women seem to have experienced a fair amount of discrimination growing up, but may be able to negotiate some equality in their marital homes.

While over two-thirds believe that property should be equally divided between brother and sisters (another quarter felt that it should be up to the parents), close to half felt that they had been discriminated against by their parents during the division of family property. Over a third felt their brothers had been given better education; close to half felt their brothers had the freedom to marry who they wished, while they hadn’t been given equal freedom in the matter. Almost 10% said they felt discriminated against within the family in the matter of healthcare expenses. Where an overwhelming three-fourths were sure they were discriminated against vis-a-vis their brothers, was in the freedom of movement, to go where they wished.

Of the married, over half said that decisions on major financial matters were taken jointly with their husbands, but a third said the decision was taken by their husband alone. Decisions on savings too were taken on the whole jointly by the couple. Joint accounts, though, are a rarity — over 80% said that they didn’t have one. The decision on when to have kids is on the whole is taken jointly by the couple and in most cases. Few precautions can reduce the incident of crime against women as below.

  1. Change of attitude towards fearer sex.
  2. Early time bound punishment.
  3. Control of population.
  4. Check the migration and arrest the easy facilitation in the bigger cities.
  5. Children born under flyover/road etc. Done crime without fear as it will give them a shelter in jail which is better than open road.
  6. You can’t live in peace making half the population on the road side and 20% enjoy 99% resources.
  7. You have to address all this to make good society.

From the very beginning of human civilization women have always been underprivileged. They had enjoyed equal freedom with men till the time people lived by ‘chase’ or even in their food gathering stage. At that time they were not settled in any particular place and while chasing the animals for food men and women played equal role in all their activities. Mankind was living in smaller groups and on group consisted of more than five hundred or six hundred people. Another important point at that stage was that people did not know that a child was born out of sexual intercourse between man and woman. That sense came to them only after they learnt to domesticate animals.

A big change came in the tribal thinking when they learnt ‘that union between men and women produced children’. Before that, all the children belonged to the tribe and each child had a mother but no father. But after acquiring this new knowledge they started searching for the father of the new born child and the responsibility of rearing up the child was shared between the father and the mother. Although it gave some relief to the mother,  but at the same time it snatched away some of her freedom. She becomes the exclusive property of a man. This way, the family system came into existence and when the tribes took to agriculture and settled-life, it was the women’s fate to become confined to home as they had to attend to the children more than the father. These way women got the protection of men but at the same time they lost their economic freedom as the economic activities become the exclusive preserve of men. After losing the economic freedom they virtually became slaves to men. This was the picture of every society from ancient time up to the recent past. A reflection of this can be seen in almost all religious dictums, “In childhood a female must be subject to her father, in youth to their husband, when her lord is dead to her sons; a women must never be independent.” Similar dictums can be traced in most of the other religions also and religion being the source of law in all the countries, people observes these laws as their sacred duty.

The problem of women’s slavery has attracted the notice of many modern social thinkers and statesmen. Many secular laws have been enacted in most of the countries of the world. But as the implementation of these laws lies in the hands of men, the plight of women has not changed much from its earlier status. Under Article 17 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, a committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women was established to consider periodic reports from state parties (153 States),  regarding their compliance with the provisions of the convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. This Convention was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 18th, 1979, and came into force on September 2nd, 1981. But not much effect of it has been felt as yet, especially in the developing countries of the world. The reason is very simple. Unless women strongly believe that they are equal to men and in no way inferior to them, their emancipation is not possible.

Without granting equal rights to women in all spheres of life irrespective of religious, social and economic conditions, we cannot expect to change their status in the society. Education is a must for all; this was provided by the Constitution of India in 1950. Article 45 says “Provision for free and compulsory education for children-the State shall endeavour to provide, within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. “But even after 65 years of Independence we still see the lack of improvement in this sphere. Even the moderately broad-minded and educated people in this country fail to grow out of the bias against the fair sex.

The book contains facts like how an embryo is formed inside the uterus and is the deciding factor of a male or a female child. Who is responsible for a male embryo and a female embryo? Man or Woman? A study has been made on the factors affecting a child’s behavious and the psychological difference between a male and a female child on the basis of the research done by different psychologists and their experimental results.

The so called religious injunctions have played an enormous role in gender discrimination. Proof of this is found in our own religious books.

Till now the efforts made towards women’s emancipation have been limited only to the enlightened sections of the society. The age old stagnant social order must be liquidated.  Women, from all sections of society, must fight their own battle with courage and conviction.

Article 14 of the Indian Constitution guarantees equal rights to all citizens and equality before law and Article 15 says “No discrimination can be made on grounds of sex, religion, race caste, and creed”. In the light of these provisions the Government of India has been trying to help women to find employment and thus, to become economically independent. They are in government service and occupy posts in the judiciary, army, police and other departments. And yet, women are made to feel inferior to men especially at the time of marriage. Demands for dowry and the harassment of women in numerous other ways are not unusual.

Social organizations should involve women at large as active participants in their effort to earn a life of freedom and respect for the fair sex. Nobody can help them until and unless they themselves come forward to modify the social and religious injunctions against them.

 

Mostly partners kill Indian women, study says (TOI  Jun 21, 2013)

40-100% cases of homicide against women in India by current or former partners, says study.

LONDON: Over half of all cases of homicide against women in India are carried out by their current or former partners, says a global survey published by the British medical journal Lancet.

The global estimate of violence against women especially from intimate partners has found that India is among the worst affected with 40 to 100% female homicide victims are at the hands of their partners.

The study was conducted the World Health Organization, in partnership with the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and the South African Medical Research Council.

It found that women’s greatest risk of murder worldwide is from a current or former partner, and women are murdered proportionally six times more likely by their partner than men.

It also pointed out that at least one in seven homicides (13.5%) are committed by an intimate partner, with partners responsible for 38.6% of all female murders compared with 6.3% of male murdered.

South East Asia recorded the highest rates of murder of women by intimate partners (58.8%).

Around 41.2% of murders of women in high-income countries like Australia, Austria, Canada, Denmark, England and Wales, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the USA are carried out by partners while in the Americas the prevalence is 40.5% and 40.1% in the Africa region.

Researchers identified 118 studies and compiled data on 492,340 homicides from 66 countries.

Countries in the low and middle-income western Pacific region (19.1%), the low-income and middle-income European region (20%), and the eastern Mediterranean region (14.4%) reported the lowest rates.

By contrast, among murders of men, rates of partner homicide were highest in high-income countries (6.3%), the Africa region (4.1%), and the low-income and middle-income European region (3.6%). In all other regions prevalence was less than 2%.

The authors point out that these are conservative estimates and that the true magnitude of the issue is hampered by a lack of data and the large amount of missing information about the perpetrator-victim status-at least a fifth of all homicides in the study did not report the victim-offender relationship and were recorded as          non-partner murders.

Heidi Stockl from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in the UK said, “Our results underscore that women are disproportionately vulnerable to violence and murder by an intimate partner, and their needs have been neglected for far too long. Such homicides are often the ultimate outcome of a failed societal, health, and criminal justice response to intimate Partner violence”.

She adds, “More needs to be done, particularly to increase investment in intimate partner violence prevention, to support women experiencing intimate partner violence (most women killed by a partner have been in long-term abusive relationships), and to control gun ownership for people with a history of violence.”

For the study, researchers systematically searched for studies published in the past 20 years containing data on the global prevalence of intimate partner homicide. They also contacted national statistics offices from 169 countries.

 

 

 

Savitribai Jyotirao Phule (January 3, 1831 – March 10, 1897) was a social reformer, who, along with her husband, Mahatma Jyotirao Phule, played an important role in improving women’s rights in India during the British Rule.

Savitribai was the first female teacher of the first women’s school in India and also considered as the pioneer of modern Marathi poetry. In 1852 she opened a school for Untouchable girls.

Savitribai’s husband Jyotirao lost his mother at a very young age. His maternal cousin sister Saguna (lovingly called SagunaAau by JyotiRao, Aaee = mother) nurtured him. SagunaAau worked as a nanny for a British officer’s son. She therefore understood and was able to converse in English. She used this knowledge to inspire JyotiRao. JyotiRao was thus attracted towards education.

Savitribai had been given a book by a Christian missionary before her marriage which she brought with her to her in-laws house. This shows the attraction she had for words and books despite being uneducated.

Her husband Mahatma Jyotirao phule is regarded as one of the most important figures in the social reform movement in Maharashtra and India. He is most known for his efforts to educate women and the lower castes. Jyotirao was Savitribai’s mentor and supporter. Under his influence Savitribai had taken women’s education and their liberation from the cultural patterns of the male-dominated society as mission of her life. She worked towards tackling some of the then major social problems, including women’s liberation, widow remarriages and removal of untouchability.

Women’s education

However, apart from all these oppositions, Savitribai yet continued to teach the girls. Whenever Savitribai went out of her house, groups of orthodox men would follow her and abuse her in obscene language. They would throw rotten eggs, cow dung, tomatoes and stones at her. She would walk meekly and arrive at her school. Fed up with the treatment meted out to her, she decided to give up. But it was because of her husband that she continued with her efforts. He told Savitribai that Jyotirao, who was working for women’s education, had started the first girls’ school and required women teachers to assist him.

Jyotirao educated and trained Savitribai, his first and ideal candidate for this job of a teacher. Savitribai and Jyotirao faced fierce resistance from the orthodox elements of society for this. Jyotirao sent her to a training school from where she passed with flying colours along with a Muslim lady Fatima Sheikh. When Savitribai completed her studies, she, along with her husband, started a school for girls on 1 January 1848 in a place called Bhide Wada, Pune. Six girls, belonging to different castes, enrolled themselves as students. This is the first girl’s school in India. Every Women proud for this Because they get new life due to Savitribai and her husband Mahatma Phule started women education in India.

Slowly and steadily, she established herself. Jyotirao and Savitribai were successful in opening 5 more schools in the year 1848. He was ultimately honoured by the British Officer Mr. Candi for his educational work. In 1852 Jyotirao and Savitribai were felicitated and presented with a shawl each by the government for their commendable efforts in Vishrambag Wada.

Widow remarriage

The next step was equally revolutionary. Savitri realised that along with education it was necessary to work on other social fronts, to build up the self-esteem and confidence of women. She also campaigned against some cruel social practices. Many girls who were married off young would be widowed by the age of twelve – thirteen. After the death of their husbands, either they would have to take Sati (a practice of burning the widow on the funeral pyre of the husband) or their head would be clean shaven to make them ugly and unattractive to other men. These helpless women, with no rights to denial, would be easy targets for depraved men. The resultant pregnant widows would be scared of being ostracized by the society and the suppression that the child would have to suffer, and would resort to suicide or killing the new born. To counteract this situation, Jyotirao started a home for the pregnant widows and orphaned children to stop this carnage. Savitri ran the home capably. She considered all the children in the orphanage like her own.

Savitribai and Jyotirao were moved by the plight of such widows and castigated the barbers. They organized a strike of barbers and persuaded them not to shave the heads of widows.

Social reforms

Savitribai was not only involved in educational activities of Jyotirao but also in every social struggle that he launched. They also fought against all forms of social prejudices. They were moved to see the untouchables who were refused drinking water meant for the upper caste. Both Jyotirao and Savitribai opened up their reservoir of water to the untouchables in the precincts of their house.

Once Jyotirao stopped a pregnant lady from committing suicide, promising her to give her child his name after it was born. Savitribai readily accepted the lady in her house and willingly assured to help her deliver the child. Savitribai and Jyotirao later on adopted this child who then grew up to become a doctor. This incident opened new horizons for the couple. Many women were driven to commit suicide by men who had exploited them to satisfy their lust and then deserted them. Therefore, Savitribai and Jyotirao put boards on streets about the “Delivery Home” for women on whom pregnancy had been forced. The delivery home was called “Balhatya Pratibandhak Griha”.

Jyotirao and Savitribai were also opposed to idolatry and championed the cause of peasants and workers. They faced social isolation and vicious attacks from people whom they questioned. After his demise, Savitribai took over the responsibility of Satya Shodhak Samaj, founded by Jyotirao. She presided over meetings and guided workers.

In 1868 she welcomed untouchables to take water from her well. She also was the first woman to light her husband’s pyre in the history of India.

Death

Savitribai worked relentlessly for the victims of plague, where she organized camps for poor children. It is said that she used to feed two thousand children every day during the epidemic. She herself was struck by the disease while nursing a sick child named Pandurang Babaji Gaikwad who lived on the outskirts of ‘Mundva’ village and died on 10 March 1897 at 9 pm. Her death was reported by the local newspaper ‘Deenbandhu’.

Legacy

Savitribai’s poems and other writings are still an inspiration to others. Two books of her poems were published, Kavya Phule in 1934 and Bavan Kashi Subodh Ratnakar in 1982. Recently the Maharashtra government started an award in her name for Women Who Work Social Causes.

Jyotirao and Savitribai opposed idolatry and championed the cause of peasants and workers. Both faced social isolation and vicious attacks from the people whom they questioned. Savitribai’s letters give us a good idea about the experiences of women during this social movement. On her death anniversary, a postage stamp was released by the Department of Post and Telegraph.

On March 10, 1998 a stamp was released by Indian post to honour Savitribai’s contribution.

Savitribai was a “Vidya Jyoti” for all those who want to do something in the field of education.

 

 

Eve’s first son Cain Cursed

Cain is the first child of Eve, the first murderer, and the first human being to fall under a curse. According to the biblical narrative in Genesis 4:1-16 says Cain treacherously murdered his brother Abel, lied about the murder to God, and as a result was cursed and marked for life. With the earth left cursed to drink Abel’s blood, Cain was no longer able to farm the land.

In Jewish tradition, Philo, Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer and the Targum Pseudo-Jonathan asserted that Adam was not the father of Cain. Rather, Eve was subject to adultery having been seduced by either Sammael, the Serpent in the Garden of Eden, or the Devil himself.  Christian exegesis of the “evil one” in 1John 3:10-12 have also led some commentators, like Tertullian, to agree that Cain was the son of the Devil or some fallen angel. Thus, according to some interpreters, Cain was half-human and half-angelic. Gnostic exegesis in the Apocryphon of John has Eve seduced by Yaldaboth. However, in the Hypostasis of the Archons, Eve is raped by a pair of Archons.

The Targumim, rabbinic sources, and later speculations supplemented background details for the daughters of Adam and Eve. Such exegesis of Genesis 4 introduced Cain’s wife as being his sister, a concept that has been accepted for at least 1800 years. This can be seen with Jubilees 4 which narrates that Cain settled down and married his sister Awan, who bore his first son, the first Enoch, approximately 196 years after the creation of Adam. Cain then establishes the first city, naming it after his son, builds a house, and lives there until it collapses on him, killing him in the same year that Adam dies.

Concerning the commandment for Cain to wander the earth, later traditions arose that this punishment was to be forever, as referenced in the legends of the Flying Dutchman or the Wandering Jew. According to some Islamic sources, such as al-Tabari, Ibn Kathir and al-Tha’labi, Cain migrated to Yemen.

According to the Life of Adam and Eve, Cain fetched his mother a reed (Heb. qaneh) which is how he received his name Qayin (Cain). The symbolism of him fetching a reed may be a nod to his occupation as a farmer, as well as a commentary to his destructive nature. He is also described as “lustrous”, which may reflect the Gnostic association of Cain with the sun.

EINSTEIN’S IDEA OF RELIGION

Was the scientist an atheist or a believer? Andrew Whitaker (Professor of physics at Queen’s University, Belfast)

In a long life, Einstein spoke and wrote on a vast range of topics, and practically every paragraph has been dissected to discover its meaning today, or to bolster our own particular beliefs. One of his interesting sayings is that the most beautiful experience one may enjoy is a ‘sense of mystery’. Inevitably this has led to the suggestion that Einstein was in some way a mystic. (I define mysticism as the search for conscious awareness of, or communion or unity with, the divine through direct experience.)

Einstein’s religious views have been a matter of considerable controversy. Max Jammer, the well-known Jewish historian and philosopher of science, wrote a thoughtful book, Einstein and Religion, concluding that for Einstein ‘religion’ was definitely not ‘atheism’. Einstein himself said that: ‘You will hardly find one among the profounder sort of scientific minds without a religious feeling’. Yet in his best-selling and much-publicized atheist polemic, The God Delusion, Richard Dawkins, who takes most of his Einstein quotes from Jammer, catagorises Einstein as ‘atheistic’.

Einstein, in fact, spoke and wrote of God extremely frequently; for example his most famous was of criticizing the random nature of quantum mechanics was to say “God does not play dice’.  He described himself as ‘an intensely religious man’, but also, equally interestingly, as ‘a deeply religious non-believer’.

A crucial point is that  Einstein stated categorically that he did not believe in a personal God, of the kind assumed by most practicing religious people. He had not always been this way. Though brought up in a very liberal Jewish household, at the age of six he became fervently religious, prescriptions. However, when he was 12, he read various scientific texts and came to believe that much in the Jewish bible could not be true. This was a crucial period in his life, in which he became an intense freethinker; first over religious matters, later over orthodox scientific beliefs.

Einstein detested the idea of a personal God who rewarded or punished his creatures or exercised his will by interfering in events. He felt such an idea was intrinsically connected with human selfishness, merely ‘a reflection of human frailty’. Einstein’s God was a much more lofty idea. However, for Christian fundamentalists on one flank, and for Dawkins on the diametrically opposite flank, anything but a personal God was no God at all, and Einstein could be vilified or saluted as an atheist.

So, what was Einstein religion? He called it ‘cosmic religion’ and it was a sense of awe at ‘the nobility and marvelous order which are revealed in nature and in the world of thought’. He believed that throughout history the greatest religious geniuses have followed cosmic religion, and that exploring this order in the laws of science was the motivation for the most celebrated scientists such as Newton and Kepler. Without this feeling of confidence in order and simplicity, science, he felt, degenerated into uninspired empiricism.

Einstein felt closest to the nineteenth century Jewish philosopher, Baruch Spinoza, who also rejected the idea of a personal God. Like Einstein, some considered Spinoza intensely religious while others judged him an atheist. Spinoza’s firmest belief was in a universal determinism; all events, including the actions of human beings, followed a precise law of cause and effect. There was no free will, and thus no justification for punishment of offenders. Einstein broadly followed Spinoza in these beliefs. As is well known, as well as realism, he was a strong believer in determinism; one of his main arguments against quantum Mechanics was that it respected neither Spinoza’s belief in the unity of nature was paralleled in Einstein’s long search for a unified field theory.

Einstein’s view of traditional religion was somewhat ambivalent. He detested any idea of indoctrination or fundamentalism, but admitted that conventional religions has a role in setting ethical standards. Dawkins would disagree, considering that ‘the cause of all this misery, mayhem, violence, terror and ignorance is religion itself’.  Einstein also venerated the founders of the major religion, especially Jesus and Buddha; Dawkins might be more skeptical. Einstein even found the elements of cosmic religion in the Psalms and the Proverbs of the Bible and particularly in Buddhism.

An interesting question is whether Einstein’s beliefs like those of Spinoza, were pantheistic, in the sense of actual worship of Nature, giving it the status of God. At times Einstein seemed close to accepting this label, but he was clear that God was to be found in the laws of the Universe, not in Nature itself. Jammer suggests that Einstein’s theology may be called a naturalistic theology, in which one searches for God by study of the Universe.

So at last we reach the question: Could Einstein is considered a mystic? Awe about the Universe might lead to some direct spiritual experience of ‘God’; however ‘God’ might be defined. However Einstein explicitly rejected such ideas, saying: ’Mysticism is the only reproach that people cannot level against my theory’.  Whatever his feeling of wonder about the Universe, his exploration into its laws was always entirely rational. He believed that scientific knowledge could not be obtained through direct supernatural perception, and incidentally considered any idea of personal immortality or the suggestion of any contact with the dead ridiculous. I started off by suggesting that many things may be read into Einstein’s words, but mysticism is certainly one thing that may be ruled out.

 

Status of women in tribal society

 

The status of women in tribal societies naturally depends on their roles. While some consider that the status of women was high others are of opinion that women were not equal to men in status. Malinowski opined that judgement of status in a society can be made only by considering all mutual duties between men and women and safeguards provided to a sex against the domination of the other sex. Lowie thought that four factors had bearing on status. These include treatment given, legal status, opportunity for social participation and the character and the extent of work.

 

 

In the tribe in Andaman men and women are equal participants in religio-economic life. The women in the tribe do all the kinds of work done by the men. They bear and rear children and do home keeping. Among the Kadar tribe there is a well-defined division of labour between men and women. They have greater freedom than women in Andaman Islands. In matrilineal societies the status of women is high as in the Khasi tribe of Assam. The Khasi tribe is matriarchal and matrilineal. Son’s earnings go to his mother till he is married and after that to his wife. Daughters inherit mother’s property. Ancestral spirits are mainly female. Ceremonial and religious life in the tribe is in control of women.

 

In the Garo tribe proposal for marriage should come from women. Descent and inheritance is through mother. Widows are not permitted to marry for a long period till infant children attain maturity. This measure is adopted to ensure that property is retained within the family. The status of women in all type of societies especially in patriarchal society is dependent on various types of taboos. For example in the Toda tribe women are prevented from participating in religious and ceremonial ceremonies centred on sacred buffaloes. Among the Gond tribe women have freedom to choose husbands and seek divorce. In the matriarchal Tharu tribe men are dominated by women who are said to be experts in witchcraft and sorcery.

The Nagas of Assam are patriarchal but among them, the status of women in Seema Nagas is higher than that among Ao and Angami Nagas. The Seema tribes woman has a voice in deciding her mate.

She enjoys a higher status in the house of her husband. In some societies where women have economic rights equal to the male rights, their status is not necessarily higher since sometimes they have to share the male activities in addition to the female burden.

In fact, rights alone do not determine the status of women. It also depends upon the male’s behaviour towards them. Besides this, they have also importance as mothers. Hence in many societies barren women are very much neglected. Tribes which have been influenced by Hindu scriptures accord a lower status to women than those who were not so influenced.

In order to evaluate the status of a woman in tribal society, one has to consider her economic and political status besides her social status. The status of woman is known from her status in the family, the rights and duties of husband and wife, premarital rights and duties of a daughter, etc. If exceptions are left aside, the status of women in tribal societies is generally not lower than that of the male.

The rights of son and daughter are generally the same and both enjoy freedom of movement. Among the tribes where there are dormitories, boys and girls both live in dormitories and though their functions may be somewhat different, there is hardly” any difference in their status. The tribal woman has generally a free choice in the selection of a mate.

Similarly, the rules of divorce are similar for both the male and female. Due to the custom of couvade’s the male also has to suffer during the period of pregnancy. Concerning freedom about sexual relationships there is no distinction among male and female.

Along with the social status, the economic status of the tribal woman is also not lower than that of the male. In productive activities, agriculture, animal husbandry, etc. male and female work together. Generally, the male’s work is harder than that of the female. In hunting tribes the males go out for hunting while the females perform domestic jobs.

All the work is done by mutual cooperation and if there is no love or cooperation marital relationships are dissolved. Thus the tribal woman has no occasion to suffer and face torture within the four walls of her home living as a slave of her husband like her so many civilized sisters. Her status here is certainly better.

So far as political rights are concerned, the tribal woman’s status is not lower though her rights are less than that of the male, since in tribal life there is more emphasis upon duties than rights in the political sphere.

The tribal chief has so many rights but then he has also the burden of the protection of the tribe. If he fails to carry out this burden he cannot hold the nigh office of the chief. In fact political power among tribal is gained by physical strength and the power of arms.

Therefore naturally, males enjoy better political rights. But there are some tribal societies in which political power lies in the hands of women. In brief, the status of women in tribal societies is no less than that of men.

 

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  1. Gray’s Anatomy Descriptive and applied, Edited by D.V.Davies D.Sc(lon),M.A.(Cantab),MBBS, FRCS, Professor of Anatomy St. Thomass Hospital Medical School. University of London.
  2. Human Physiology by Chandi Chaan Chatterjee, B.Sc.MD(Cal), Medical college, Calcutta.
  3. The phychology of Gender Vol-I, By Carol Nagy Jacklin. Prof of Psychology University of Southern California.
  4. Marriage & Divorce in Islam by Dr.Zeenat Shakwat Ali.
  5. Pakistan and Partition of India by Dr.B.R.Ambedkar.
  6. Women-education-Employment: Family Living, by Dr.(Mrs.)M. Indira devi(1987)
  7. Religion and the status of Women by Jyotsna Chatterjee.
  8. Sati Widow Burning in India by V.N.Dutta.
  9. Her Story, An Anthology of Studies in Women’s problems. Editor, Karabi Sen (1985).
  10. Samir Banerjee’s “Purush Samaje Nari” or Women in men’s society, Cosmo script cal-9,pp17-18
  11. Periyar on womens rights by K.Veeramanie.
  12. Slavery, by Mahatma Jotirao Phule.
  13. Women and Work in America by Robert W.Smuts(1959)
  14. The Constitution of India, GOI Publication.
  15. Bamuner Maya, Pritha, Samb etc. by Bengali Writers.

 

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