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How many gushing springs and roaring cataracts, how many icy rivulets and ever-flowing streamlets, issuing from the eternal snow-capped peaks of the Himalayas, combine and flow to Ganga-and rush impetuously towards the ocean? So, what a variety of thoughts and ideas, how many currents of forces, issuing from innumerable sanity hearts, and from the brains of geniuses of various lands have already enveloped India, the land of Karma, the arena for the display of higher human activities.

A veritable ethnological museum! Possibly, the half-ape skeleton of the recently discovered Sumatra link will be found on search here too. The Dolmens are not wanting. Flint implements can be dug out almost anywhere….Then there are the more historical varieties-the Negrito-Kolarian, the Dravidian, and the Aryan. To these have been added from time to time, dashes of nearly all the known races, and a great many yet unknown….An Ocean of humanity composed of these race waves, seething, boiling struggling, constantly changing form, rising to the surface, and spreading and swallowing little ones, again subsiding- this  in the history of India.

From the fusion of these different types and races our modern societies, manners, and customs began to be evolved. New ideas sprang up and new sciences began to be cultivated. One class of men went on manufacturing articles of utility and comfort, either by manual or intellectual labour. A second class took upon themselves the charge of protecting them, and all preceded to exchange these things. And it so happened that a band of fellows who were very clever undertook to take these things from one place to another, and on the plea of remuneration for this, appropriated the major portion of their profit as their due. One tilled the ground, a second guarded the produce from being robbed, a third took it to another place, and a fourth bought it. The cultivator got almost nothing, he who guarded the produce took away as much of it, as he could, by force; the merchant who brought it to the market took the lions share; and the buyer had to pay out of all proportion for the things, and smarted under the burden! The protector came to be known as the king; he who took the commodities from one place to another was the merchant. These two did not produce anything but still snatched away the best part of things, and made themselves fat by virtually reaping most of the fruits of the cultivators, toil and labour. The poor fellow who produced all these things had often to go without his meals and cry to God for help!

Now, with the march of events, all these matters grew more and more involved, knots upon knots multiplied; and out of this tangled net-work has evolved our modern complex society. But the marks of bygone character persist, and do not die out completely.

The whole of the Asiatic civilisation was first evolved on the plains near large rivers and on fertile soils-on the banks of the Ganga, the Yangtse-kiang and the Euphrates. The original foundation of all these civilisations is agriculture, and in all of them the Daivi (divine) nature predominates. Most of the European civilisation, on the other hand, originated either in hilly countries or on the seacoasts-piracy and robbery forms the basis of this civilisation; there the Asuri (non-divine) nature is predominant.

The European civilisation may be likened to a piece of cloth, of which these are materials; its look is a vast temperate hilly country on the sea-shore; its cotton, a strong warlike mongrel race formed by the intermixture of various races; its warp is warfare in defence of one’s self and one’s religion….Its woof is commerce. The means to its civilisation is the sword; its auxiliary-courage and strength; its aim-enjoyment here and hereafter.

The loom of the fabric of the Aryan civilisation is a vast, warm, level country interspersed with broad, navigable rivers. The cotton of this cloth is composed of highly civilised, semi-civilised, and barbarian tribes, mostly Aryan. Its warp is Varnashramachara,*(The old Indian institution of the four castes (Brahmins, Kshatriya, Vaishya, and Shudra and four stage of life, student life, householders life, hermit life and life of renunciation) and its woof, the conquest of strife and competition in nature.

The object of the peoples of Europe is to exterminate all in order to live themselves. The aim of the Aryans is to raise all up to their own level, nay even to a higher level than themselves. The means of European civilisation is the sword; of the Aryans, the division into different Varnas (Natural caste). This system of division into different Varnas is the stepping stone to civilization, making one rise higher and higher in proportion to ones learning and culture. In Europe, it is everywhere victory to the strong, and death to the weak. In the land of Bharata every social rule is for the protection of the weak.

The name Brahmana, Kshatriya, etc…represent the status of a community in itself continuously fluctuating, even when it has reached the summit; and all further endeavours are to-wards fixity of the type by non-marriage, by being forced to admit fresh groups from lower castes or foreign lands, within its pale. Whatever caste has the power of the sword, because Kshatriya; whatever learning, Brahmana; whatever wealth, Vaishya. The groups that have reached the coveted goal, indeed, try to keep themselves aloof from the new-comers, by making subdivisions in the same caste; but the fact remains that the coalesce in the long run. This is going on before our own eyes, all over India.

……..We are, in spite of our various castes, and in spite of the modern custom of marriage restricted within the sub-divisions of a caste (though this is not universal), as mixed race in every sense of the term.

The institution of caste has always been very flexible, sometimes too flexible to ensure a healthy up rise of the races very low in the scale of culture. It put, theoretically at least, the whole of India under the guidance-not of wealth, nor of the sword-but of intellect-intellect chastened and controlled by spirituality. The leading caste in India is the highest of the Aryans – the Brahmanas. Though apparently different from the social methods of other nations, on close inspection, the Aryan method of caste will not be found so very different except on two points:

The first is, in every other country the highest honour belongs to the Kshatriya-the man of the sword….In India, the highest honour belongs to the man of peace-the Sharman, the Brahmana, the man of God….The second point is, the difference of unit. The law of caste in every other country takes the individual man or woman as the sufficient unit. Wealth, power intellect or beauty suffices for the individual to leave the status of birth and scramble up to anywhere he can. Here, the unit is all the member of a caste community. Here too, one has every chance of rising from a low caste to a higher or the highest; only, in this birth-land of altruism, one is compelled to take his whole caste along with him. If you want to rise to a higher caste in India, you have to elevate all your caste first and then there is nothing in your onward path to hold you back.


So, what is the basis of the India’s social order? It is the caste law. I am born for the caste; I live for the caste….Born in the caste, the whole life must be lived according to caste regulation. In the other words, in the present-day language…the Western man is born individualistic, while the Hindu is socialistic-entirely socialistic…, So, I have no voice in my marriage, or my sister. It is the caste that determines all that. We are married sometimes as children. Why? Because the caste says, if they have to be married anyway without their consent, it is better that they are married early….You may say, “Oh, they lose a great deal of enjoyment-those exquisite emotions of a man falling in love with a woman, and a woman falling in love with a man….”But the Hindu says, “We are socialistic. For the sake of one man’s or one women’s exquisite pleasure, we don’t want to load misery on hundreds of others”.

Our castes and our institutions have been necessary to protect us as a nation, and when this necessity for self-preservation will no more exist, they will die a natural death. But the older I grow, the better I seem to think of these time-honoured institutions of India. There  was a when I used to think than many of them were useless and worthless; but the older I grow, the more I seem to feel diffidence in cursing any one of them, for each one of them is the embodiment of the experience of centuries.

A child of but yesterday, destined to die the day after tomorrow, comes to me and ask me to change all my plans; and I hear the advice of the baby and change all my surroundings according to his ideas, I myself should be a fool, and no one else. Much of the advice that is coming to us from different countries is similar to this. Tell these wiseacres: I will hear you when you have made a stable society yourselves. You cannot hold on to one idea for two days, you quarrel and fail; you are born like moths in the spring and die like them in five minutes. You come up like bubbles and burst like bubbles too. First form a stable society like ours. First make laws and institutions that remain undiminished in their power through scores of centuries. Then will be the time to talk on the subject with you; but till then, my friend, you are only a giddy child.

They say, there should be no caste. Even those who are in caste say, it is not a very perfect institution. But they say, when you find us another and a better one, we will give it up. They say, what will you give us instead? Where is there is no caste? In you nation (USA) you are struggling all the time to make a caste. As soon as a man gets a bag of dollars, he says, “ I am one of the Four Hundred.” We (India) alone have succeeded in making a permanent caste. Other nations are struggling and do not succeed. We have superstitions and evils enough. Would taking the superstitions and evils from your Western country mend matters? It is owing to caste that three hundred millions of people can find a piece of bread to eat yet. It is an imperfect institution, no doubt. But if it had not been for caste, you would have had no Sanskrit books to study. This caste made walls, around which all sorts of invasions rolled and surged, but found it impossible to break through. That necessity has not gone yet (March 25, 1896); so caste remains.

The solution is not by bringing down the higher, but by raising the lower up to the level of the higher. And that is the line of work that is found in all our books, in spite of what you may hear from some people whose knowledge of their own scriptures and whose capacity to understand the mighty plans of the ancients are only zero…. What is the plan? The ideal at the end is the Brahmana, and at the other end is the Chandala; and whole work is to raise the Chandala up to the Brahmana. Slowly and slowly you find more and more privileges granted to them. There are books where you read such fire words as these: “If the Shudra hears the Veda, fill his ears with molten lead; and if he remembers a line, cut his tongue out.” … Later on, this tone is modified a little as for instance, “Do not disturb the Shudras, but do not teach them higher things.” Then gradually we find in other Smritis, especially in those that have full power now, that if the Shudras imitate the manners and customs of Brahmanas they do well; they ought to be encouraged. Thus it is going on…Coming to plain facts we find that all the castes are to rise slowly and slowly; however, there are thousands of castes and some are even getting admission into Brahmana hood, for what prevents any caste from declaring they are Brahmanas? Thus, caste with all its rigour, has been created in that manner. Let us suppose that there are castes here with ten thousand people in each. If these put their heads together and say, “”We will call ourselves Brahmanas,”” nothing can stop them; I have seen it in my own life. Some castes become strong, and as soon as they all agree, who is to say nay? Because, whatever it was, each caste was exclusive of the other. It did not meddle with others affairs; even the several divisions of the one caste did not meddle with the other division; and those powerful epoch-makers, Shankaracharya and others, were the great caste-makers.

I do not propose any levelling of caste. Case is a very good thing. Caste is the plan we want to follow. What caste really is, not one in a million understands. There is no country in the world without caste. In India, from caste we reach to the point where there is no caste. Caste is based throughout on that principle. The plan in India is to make everybody Brahmana,  the Brahmana being the ideal of humanity. If you read the history of India you will find that attempts have always been made to raise the lower classes. Many are he classes that have been raised. Many more will follow till the whole will become Brahmana. That is the plan. We have one to raise them without bringing down anybody.

The ideal man of our ancestors was the Brahmana…In Europe, there is my Lord the Cardinal who is struggling hard and spending thousands of pounds to prove the nobility of his ancestors; and he will not be satisfied unless he has traced his ancestry to some dreadful tyrant, who live on a hill, and watched the people passing by, and whenever he had the opportunity, sprang out on them and robbed them…. In India…. you are of the highest caste when you can trace your ancestry to a Rishi, and not otherwise. Our ideal is the Brahmlana and not otherwise. Our ideal is the Brahmana of spiritual culture and renunciation. By the Brahmana ideal what do I mean? I mean the ideal Brahmananess in which worldliness is altogether absent and true wisdom is abundantly present. That is the ideal of the Hindu race.

The Brahmana caste and the Brahmanya qualities are two distinct things. In India, one is held to be a Brahmana by ones’s caste;  but in the West, one should be known as such by one’s Brahmanya qualities. As there are three Gunas-Sattva, Rajas and Tamas-so there are Gunas which show a man to be a Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaishya, or a Kshtriya are dying out from the country; but in the West they have now attained to Kshatriyahood, from which the next step is Brahmanahood, and many there are who have qualified themselves for that.

With the prevalence of the Sattvika essence a man becomes inactive and rests always in a state of deep Dhyana or contemplation; with the prevalence of the Rajas, he does bad as well as good works; and with the prevalence of the Tamas again, he becomes inactive and inert…..The Sattva prevailing, the man is inactive, he is calm to be sure; but that inactivity is the outcome of the centralisation of great powers. That calmness is the mother of tremendous energy….That man of predominating Sattva is the Brahmana, the worshipped of all. Has he to go about from door to door, begging others to worship him?…. And mark you, those things which you see in pusillanimous, effeminate folk who speak in a nasal tone chewing every syllable, whose voice is as thin as of one who has been starving for a week, who are like a tattered wet rag, who never protest or  are moved even if kicked by anybody-those are the sign of the lowest Tamas, those are the sign of death-not of Sattva-all corruption and stench… During these last thousand years, the whole country is filling the air with the name of the Lord, and is sending its prayer to him; and the Lord is never lending His ears to them. And why should He? When even man never hears the cries of the fool, do you think God will? …See  the irony of it! Jesus Christ, the  God of the Europeans, has taught: Have no enemy, bless them that curse you; … stop all work  and be ready for the next world…. And our Lord in the Gita is saying: Always work with great enthusiasm, destroy your enemies and enjoy the world. But, after all, it turned out to be exactly the reverse of what Christ or Krishna implied…. Who are following the teachings of the Gita? The Europeans! And who are acting according to the will of Jesus Christ?-The descendants of Shri Krishna!

Now you understand whether there are Brahmanas in the West or not. You have Brahmanas here (in India) also; but they are bringing the country down to the verge of ruin by their awful tyranny, and consequently what they have naturally is vanishing away by degrees.

My disciples are all Brahmanas!…. The son of a Brahmana is not necessarily always a Brahmana; though there is every possibility of his being one, he may not become so. Did you not here that the nephew of Aghore  Chakravarty of Baghbazar became a sweeper, and actually use to do all the menial services of his adopted caste? Was he not the son of a Brahmana.

As there are Sattva, Rajas and Tamas-one or other of these Gunas more or less-in every man, so the qualities which make a Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaishya or a Shudra are inherent in every man, more or less. But at time one or other of these qualities predominates in him in varying degrees and in manifested accordingly. Take a man in his different pursuits, for example; when he is engaged in serving another for pay, he in in Shudrahood; when he is busy transacting some piece of business for profit, on his own account, he is a Vaishya; when he fights to right wrongs, then the qualities of a Kshatriya come out in him; and when he meditates on God, or passes his time in conversation about Him, then he is a Brahmana. Naturally, it is quite possible for one to be changed from one caste into another. Otherwise, how did Vishvamitra become a Brahmana, and Parashurama a Kshatriya?

We find clear proofs about caste being based on qualification both in the Bhishma-parva of the Mahabharata and in the stories there of the Ajagara and the Uma and Maheshvara.

Every individual is a centre for the manifestation of a certain force. This force has been stored up as the resultant of our previous works; and each one of us is born with this force at his back.

This is the great truth which the Lord Shri Krishna, the reveller of the Gita has tried there in to explain; and upon this great truth is established the Varnashrama system and the doctrine of Svadharma, ec. Of the Hindu religion.

It is only the Vedic religion which considers way and means and lays down rules for the fourfold attainment of man, comprising Dharma, Artha (Wealth), Kama (Enjoyment), and Moksha (Salvation)….The right and correct means is that of the Vedas-the Jati-Dharma, that is the Dharma enjoined according to different castes-the Svadharma, that is one’s own Dharma, or set of duties prescribed for man according to his capacity and position-which is the very basis of the Vedic religion and Vedic society…. This Jati Dharmla, the Svadharma, is the path of welfare of all societies in every land, the ladder to ultimate freedom. With the decay of this Jati-Dharma, the Svadharma, has come the downfall of our land. But the Jati-Dharma or Svadharma, as commonly understood at present by the higher castes, is rather a new evil, which has to be guarded against. They think, they know everything of Jati-Dharma, but really they know nothing of it. Regarding their own village custom as the eternal custom laid down by the Vedas, appropriating to themselves all privileges, they are going to their doom! I am not talking of caste as determined by qualitative distinction, but of the hereditary caste-system. I admit that the qualitative caste-system is the primary one; but the pity is, qualities yield to birth in two or three generations. Thus the vital point of our national life has been touched; otherwise, why should we sink to this degraded state? Read in the Gita, “I should then be the cause of the admixture of races, and I should ruin these beings.” How came this terrible Varnasamkara-this confounding mixture of all castes and disappearance of all qualitative distinctions? Why has the white complexion of our forefathers now become black? Why did the Sattva Guna give place to the prevailing Tamas with a sprinkling, as it were, of Rajas in it? That is a long story to tell, and I reserve my answer for some future occasion. For the present try to understand this that, if the Jati-Dharma be rightly and truly preserved, the nation shall never fall. If this is true, then what was it that brought our downfall? That we have fallen is the sure sign that the basis of the Jati-Dharma has been tampered with. Therefore, what you call the Jati-Dharma is quite contrary to what we have in fact. First, read you own Shastras (scriptures) through and through, and you will  easily see that what the Shastras define as caste-Dharma has disappeared almost everywhere from the land. Now, try to bring back the true Jati-Dharma, and then it will be a real and sure boon to the country.


Swami Vivekananda says

Avoid strife,  Who is a Brahmin?

Modern caste distinction is a barrier to India’s progress. It narrows, restricts, separates. It will crumble before the advance of ideas.

I full agree with the educated classes in India, that a thorough overhauling of society is necessary; but how to do it? The destructive plans of reformers have failed. My plan is this. We have not done badly in the past, certainly not. Our society is not bad but good, only I want it to be better still…….Take the case of caste, in Sanskrit, Jat, i.e. species. Now, this is the idea of creation……….. So long as any species is vigorous and active it must throw out varieties. When it ceases or is stopped from breeding varieties, it dies. Now, the original idea of Jati was this freedom of the individual to express his nature, his Prakriti, his Jati, his caste; and so it remained for thousands of years. Not even in the latest books is interdining prohibited; nor in any of the older books is intermarriage forbidden. Then what was the cause of India’s downfall?-the giving up of this idea of caste. As the Gita says, with the extinction of caste the world will be destroyed….The present caste is not the real Jati, but a hindrance to its progress. It really has prevented the free action of Jati, i.e. caste, variation. Any crystallised custom or privilege or hereditary class in any shape really prevents caste (Jati) from having its full sway; and whenever any nation ceases to produce this immense variety, it must die……..Every frozen aristocracy or privileged class is a blow to caste and is not caste. Let Jati have its sway; break down every barrier in the way of caste and we shall rise…..Every Hindu knows that Astrologers try to fix the caste of every boy or girl as soon as he or she is born. That is the real caste-the individuality; and Jyotisha (Astrology) recognises that. And we can only rise by giving it full sway again. This variety does not mean inequality, nor any special privilege.

The Brahmanahood is the ideal of humanity in India, as wonderfully put forward by Shankaracharya at the beginning of his commentary on the Gita, where he speaks about the reason for Krishna’s coming as a preacher for the preservation of Brahmanahood, or Brahmananess. That was the great end. This Brahmana the man of God, he who has known Brahman, the ideal man, the perfect man, must remain; he must not go. And with all the defects of the caste now, we know that we must all be ready to give to the Brahmana his credit, that from them have come more men with real Brahmananess in them than from all the other castes. We must be bold enough, must be brave enough to speak of their defects; but at the same time we must give the credit that is due to them…….Therefore, my friends, it is no use fighting among castes. What good will it do? It will divide us all the more, degrade us all the more.

To the non-Brahmana castes I say, be not in a hurry; do not seize every opportunity of fighting the Brahmana, because, as I have shown, you are suffering from your own fault. Who told you to neglect spirituality and Sanskrit learning? What have you been doing all this time? Why have you been indifferent? What do you now fret and fume because somebody else had more brains, more energy, more pluck and go, than you! Instead of wasting your energies in vain discussions and quarrels in the newspapers, instead of fighting and quarrelling in your own homes-which is sinful-use all your energies in acquiring the culture which the Brahmana has, and the thing is done. Why do you not become Sanskrit Scholars? Why do you not spend millions to bring Sanskrit education to all the castes in India? That is the secret of power in India. Sanakrit and prestige go together in India.

The only safety, I tell you men who belong to the lower castes, the only way to raise your condition, is to study Sanskrit, and this fighting and writing and frothing against the higher castes is in vain; it does no good, and it creates fight and quarrel; and this race, unfortunately already divided, is going to be divided more and more. The only way to bring about the levelling of caste is to appropriate the culture, the education, which is the strength of the higher castes. That done, you have what you want.

It is culture that withstands shocks, not a simple mass of knowledge….We all know, in modern times, of nations which have masses of knowledge; but what of them? They are like tigers, they are like savages, because culture is not there. Knowledge is only skin-deep, as civilisation is; and a little scratch brings out the old savage; such things happen; this is the danger. Teach the masses in the vernaculars, give them ideas, they will get information; but something more is necessary, give them culture. Until you give them that there can be no permanence in the raised condition of the masses.

To the Brahmanas I appeal, that they must work hard to raise the Indian people by teaching them what they know, by giving out the culture that they have accumulated for centuries. It is clearly the duty of the Brahmanas of India to remember what real Brahmanahood is. As Manu says, all these privileges and honours are given to the Brahmana because, “with him is the treasury of virtue”. He must open that treasury and distribute its valuables to the world. It is true that he was the earliest preacher to the Indian races, he was the first to renounce everything in order to attain to the higher realisation of life, before others could reach to the idea. It was not his fault that he reached ahead of the other castes….But it is one thing to gain advantage, and another thing to preserve it for evil use. Whenever power is used for evil, it becomes diabolical; it must be used for good only. So this accumulated culture of ages of which the Brahmana has been the trustee, he must now give to the people at large; and it was because he did not give it to the people, that the Mohammedan invasion was possible. It was because he did not open this treasury to the people from the beginning, that for a thousand years we have been trodden under the heels of every one who chose to come to India; it was through that  we have become degraded, and the first task must be to break open the cells that hide the wonderful treasures which our common ancestors accumulated; bring them out, and give them to everybody; and the Brahmana must be the first to do it. There is an old superstition in Bengal that if the cobra that bites, sucks out his own poison from the patient, the man must survive. Well then, the Brahmana must suck out his own poison.

The super-arrogated excellence of birth of any caste in India is only pure myth, and in no part of India has it, we are sorry to say, found such congenial soil owing to linguistic differences as in the South……We believe in Indian caste as one of the greatest social institutions that the Lord gave to man. We also believe that though the unavoidable defects, foreign persecutions and above all, the monumental ignorance and pride of many Brahmanas who do not deserve the name, have thwarted, in many ways, the legitimate fructification of this most glorious Indian Institution, it has already worked wonders for the land of Bharata and is destined to lead Indian humanity to its goal…..

Vivekanand divided India only on two communities Brahmana and Non-Brahmins.

Anyone who claims to be a Brahmana, then should prove his pretensions first by manifesting that spirituality and next by raising others to the same status. On the face of this it seems that most of them are only nursing a false pride of birth, and any schemer, native or foreign, who can pander to this vanity and inherent laziness by fulsome sophistry, appears to satisfy most.

Beware Brahmanas, this is the sign of death! Arise and show your manhood,  your Brahmanahood, by raising the non-Brahmanas around you-not in the spirit of a master, not with the rotten canker of egotism crawling with superstitions and the charlatanry of East and West-but in the spirit of a servant. For verily he who knows how to serve knows how to rule. The non-Brahmanas also have been spending their energy in kindling the fire of caste hatred-vain and useless to solve the problem-to which every non-Hindu is only too glad to throw on a load of fuel. Not a step forward can be made by these inter-caste quarrels, not one difficulty removed; only the beneficent onward march of events would be thrown back, possibly for centuries if the fire bursts out into flame. P-67

It is true that the caste-system becomes essential in the ordinary course of nature. Those that have aptitudes for a particular work form a class. But who is to settle the class of a particular individual? If a Brahmana thinks that he has a special aptitude for spiritual culture, why should he be afraid to meet a Shudra in an open field? Will a horse be afraid of running a race with a jade?


Every action that helps a being manifest its divine nature more and more is good; every action that retards it is evil. The only way of getting our divine nature manifested is by helping others to do the same. If there is inequality in nature, still there must be equal chance for all-or if greater for some and for some less-the weaker should be given more chance than the strong. In other words, a Brahmana is not so much in need of education as a Chandala. If the son of a Brahmana needs one teacher,  that of a Chandala needs ten.  For greater help must be given to him whom nature has not endowed with an acute intellect from birth. It is a madman who carries coal to Newcastle. The poor, the downtrodden, the ignorant, let these be your God.


Our aristocratic ancestors went on treading the common masses of our country under foot, till they become helpless, till under this torment the poor, poor people nearly forgot that they were human beings……..With all our boasted education of modern times, if anybody says a kind word for them, I often find our men shrinking at once from the duty of lifting them up, these poor downtrodden people. Not only so, but I also find that all sorts of most demoniacal and brutal arguments, culled from the crude ideas of hereditary transmission and other such gibberish from the Western world, are brought forward in order to brutalise and tyrannise over the poor, all the more…… Aye, Brahmanas, if the Brahmana has more aptitude for learning on the ground of heredity than the Pariah, spend no more money on the Brahmanas education, but spend all on the Pariah. Give to the weak for there the entire gift is needed. If the Brahmana is born cleaver, he can educate himself without help. If the other is not born clever, let them have all the teaching and the teachers they want. This is justice and reason as I understand it. Our poor people, these downtrodden masses of India, therefore, require to hear and to know what they really are. Aye,  let every man and woman and child, without respect of caste or birth, weakness or strength, here and learn that behind the strong and the weak, behind the high and the low, behind every one, there is that Infinite Soul assuring the infinite possibility and the infinite capacity of all to become great and good. Let us proclaim to every soul-“Arise, awake! Awake from this hypnotism of weakness! None is really weak; the soul is infinite, omnipotent, and omniscient. Stand, assert yourself, proclaim the God within you; do not deny Him! P69

Our mission is for the destitute, the poor, and the illiterate peasantry and labouring classes; and if after everything has been done for them first, there is spare time, then only for the gentry. Those peasants and labouring people will be won over by love….”One must raise oneself by one’s own exertions”- this holds good in all spheres. We help them to help themselves….The moment they will come to understand their own condition and feel the necessity of help and improvement, know that your work is taking effect and is in the right direction. While the little good that the moneyed classes, out of pity, due to the poor, does not last; and ultimately it does nothing but harm to both parties. The peasants and labouring classes are in a moribund condition; so what is needed is that the moneyed people will only help them to regain their vitality, and nothing more. Then leave the peasant and labourers to look to their own problems, to grapple with and solve it. But then you must take care not to set up class-strife between the poor peasants, the labouring people and the wealthy classes, Make it a point not to abuse the moneyed classes.

Invader destroyed University in India


India, Bihar’s Nalanda University was destroyed by invader Bakhtiyar

It is said by credible persons that he (Bakhtiyar) went to the gate of the fort of Behar with only two hundred horse, and began the war by taking the enemy unawares. In the service of Bakhtiyar there were two brothers of great intelligence. One of them was named Nizamu-d-in and the other Samsum-u-din. The compiler of this book met Samsum-u-din at Lakhnauti in the year 641H(1243A.D.) and heard the following story from him. When Bakhtiyar reached the gate of the fort and fighting began, these two wise brother were active in that army of heroes.

“Muhammad Bakhtiyar with great vigour and audacity rushed in at the gate of the fort and gained possession of the place. Great plunder fell into the hands of the victors, most of the inhabitants of the place were Brahmans with shaven heads. They were put to death. Large numbers of books were found there, and when the Muhammadans saw them, they called for some persons to explain their contents, but all the men had been killed. It was discovered that the whole fort and city was a place of study(madrasa). In the Hindi language the word Behar(vihar) meand a college.” (Tabakat-i-Nasiri, p306).